History and how was it started?
Before the advent of nanotechnology, the word Nano use for mathematical term which means a nano meter (nm) is equal to one-billionth part of a meter. Only between 1nm to 100nm are in nano scale. Nanoscience and nanotechnology study about extremely small molecules/atoms and study its application in science field like physics, biology, agriculture, science and materials science and engineering etc.
On the December 29, 1959, California Institute of Technology (CalTech) American Physicist Richard Feynman said a statement on meeting that “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom”. This sentence later became the cornerstone of nanotechnology and given an idea towards the nanotechnology.
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The term nanotechnology was first used and defined in the year 1974 by japanese professor Norio taniguchi. It is the engineering of atoms and atoms that interconnects subjects like physical, chemical, bioinformatics, and bio-science. The chemical and physical characteristics of the nano particles change due to the externally microscopic.
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Technology involving processes, operations, applications and development of devices of such extremely small dimensions is referred to as nanotechnology by change in different properties of materials such as chemical, mechanical, thermal, electrical, optical etc.
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In nanomaterials, a material dimension becomes comparable to the wavelength of photons. Due to quantum mechanical effect, motion of randomly moving electron gets confined to specific energy levels. It affects the electrical magnetic and optical properties of nanoparticle. Due to this effect, thermal conductivity of nanomaterials decreases. The thermal conductivity decreases by a factor of five in the nanorange.
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APPLICATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY:
- Computer Field: In Supercomputer. In chips and ICs, here nanowire replaced connector.
- Medical Sciences
- Cancer treatment: Bacteria tumor cells of gold particle are developed for changing the structure of cancer.
- Diseases detecting devices: Nanotechnology based devices such as ‘wrist watch’ is developed, already, which can help to predict the probable diseases/illnesses of the body.
- Industries : Nanotechnology based paints, Nanotechnology based clothes
- Other uses:
Water purification: Nano-mineral, nano-gold and nano-silver nitrate are useful to eliminate the harmful element arsenic (As) from water.
Nanofoster material is used to improve the quality of brightness and contrast of pictures on television.
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NANOMATERIAL IN DIFFERENT FORMS:
Quantum dot, Nano-particles, Nano-cluster, Nano wells and wires, Bulk nanostructured materials, Magnetic clusters, Carbon nanostructures, Superfluid clusters, Nanostuctured ferromagnetism, etc.
Atom switches, Drug delivery systems, Nano-electromechanical systems (NEMs) etc., Molecular machine, Nano robots, Single electron transistors, Nano biometrics.
Advantages: As you may have read in brief above and you have understood what is going to happen in the future of nanotechnology.
Nanotechnology has the ability to see and control an atom and more molecules.
Nanotechnology can be used in the field of medical for operations at a microscopic level. Drug delivery machines to a particular organ can be developing.
Nano fertilizer, nano weed, etc. will be used to save and grow crops in agricultural areas.
Such memory can be developed by nanotechnology which allows more data storage over a much smaller area.
Strong fiber can be made with nanotechnology which can be use in the manufacturing of fabrics and other material. Nanotechnology is very reliable.
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Some challenges are also emerging with the use of nanotechnology;
Due to the continuous increase in the production and use of metallic nano particles, there is increasing concern about the environment and human health.
Nano-particle deposition in food crops or affecting the growth of crops can have dangerous consequences.
Nano particles reach the human body easily by water and air and they harm. In this article discussed about nanotechnology and Nanoscience and try to explain it and its applications and disadvantages.
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