Agriculture is a very important component of human survival. As the population is increasing, so is the need. It is necessary to use the modern technology such as nanotechnology (Click link) in agricultural sciences. As we know nanotechnology is another upcoming discipline has revolutionary applications in pharmaceutical, manufacturing, military, electronics, agriculture and other life sciences. When any material’s size has nano scale then it has very large surface area relative to their small size, which can make them very reactive. Fundamental properties of any nano materials are differ from their corresponding bulk material. Although, this advances nanotechnology can help in using agricultural inputs or outputs more effectively, enhancing agricultural productivity in a sustainable manner, but the nanomaterials used in agriculture may also become new environmental hazards themselves.
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Some nanoparticles generally used in agriculture sector:
So many nanoparticles or nanomaterials are used in agriculture sector to increase productivity and control on plant diseases. Described some nano materials which is as follows:
Polymeric nanoparticles: Polymeric nanoparticles have attracted attention for a few years due to their properties resulting from their small size. It advantages as drug include their potential use for controlled release, the ability to protect drug and other molecules with biological activity against the environment, improve their bioavailability and therapeutic index. Some of the polymeric nanomaterials used in agriculture are polyethylene glycol, poly(epsilon-caprolactone), poly(lactide-co-glycolides), and poly (γ-glutamic acid).
Carbon nanomaterials: There has been great interest in the use of carbon nano-materials (CNMs) in agriculture. However, the existing literature reveals mixed effects from carbon nanomaterials exposure on plants, ranging from enhanced crop yield to acute cytotoxicity and genetic alteration. Some forms of carbon nanomaterials are use in agriculture such as: carbon nano-tubes, fullerenes, carbon nanoparticles, and carbon nano-horns, among others.
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Silver nanoparticles: Nanotechnology in the field of agriculture using many nanoparticles which targeted the farming by use of silver nanoparticles with biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles which is the best method over chemical and physical methods; it was found that nanoparticles were effective against fungal and bacterial infections and crop insect.
Silicon nanoparticles: Silicon nanoparticles may also be used as delivery agents for proteins, nucleotides, and other chemicals in plants; nanozeolite and nanosensors incorporate silicon nanoparticles and may be effectively used in agriculture for increasing the water retention of soil and for soil monitoring.
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles: it is also used as an essential nutrient for plant growth and development. It is also help to improve photosynthetic pigments in plants such as chlorophyll, carotenoids and anthocyanins contents, therefore, enhanced the crop growth and yield.
Some of the other nanoparticles that are used in agriculture are zinc oxide, copper oxide nanoparticles, and magnetic nanoparticles.
Application of nano based biosensors for agriculture sector:
Nanotechnology based biosensors is very important to detect nowadays modern problems in agriculture. The work on the development of nanotechnology-based biosensors to monitor soil health, plant growth, and disease onset is in progress. Biosensors have a biological component. They react if any changes recorded in surrounding environment, and then produce a signal in a linked transducer, that can be further processed to generate data. These biosensors can be linked with GPS system and connected to a computer for real-time monitoring.
Use of these biosensors in agriculture, can be very useful in precision farming where productivity can be optimized by judging the soil and plant health and nutritional status before the appearance of visible symptoms of any deficiency or disease and providing the required inputs and conditions, in a timely manner with precision.
What are nano fertilizers?
Scientist developed nano fertilizers with smart delivery system that would release nutrients in a slow and well suitable manner to the targeted site to tackle nutrient deficiency in plants. Nano fertilizers increase agricultural productivity by enhancing the availability of essential nutrients to the plant. After the use of this nano fertilizers even in dry conditions, the yield of millet and cluster beans was seen to increase significantly. Chitosan nanoparticles suspensions containing nitrogen, phosphorus, and sodium have also increased crop production.
Conclusion: In this article, you read about how nanotechnology affect on agriculture sector. Thank you for reading this article hope it may help you to understand about it. And visit for more article related to bio materials, electronic materials, advance materials, magnetic materials, knowledge base and metallurgical base.
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